Lord of the Flies is written from the third person omniscient of view.
The characteristics of third person omniscient point of view include a narrative perspective that is detached from the characters in the story but which has access to the thoughts and feelings of many or all of the characters in the story.
We can see the detachment of the narrator at the novel's outset as Ralph and Piggy are described. The narrator is clearly not Ralph or Piggy, but a story-teller (author) witnessing the people and events of the story from outside and not involved with them.
The narrator's access to the minds and feelings of the characters is seen again and again. Ralph's thoughts and his mental state are often discussed in the text. This is how we see Ralph slipping into a growing confusion as the "flap" in his mind closes on his consciousness more and more often. This is also how we see Roger's impulses and become aware that he is violent at heart.
Lord of the Flies is narrated in third person omniscient.
A third person omniscient narrator has access to each character's feelings and actions. As a reader, there are benefits of having a third person omniscient narrator. We are able to see the emotions, change, and growth of each character without the same emotional influence we would be getting had the story been told in first person by a single character. We are able to take a step back from the characters and use our own knowledge to asses what is occurring in the story rather than taking on the view points of the characters.