What is the poem "A Poison Tree" mainly about?

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"A Poison Tree" by William Blake explores how individuals choose to handle their anger differently in regard to their friends and enemies. In the first quatrain, the speaker describes how he explained his anger to his friend, which resolved his negative feelings. In contrast, the speaker does not choose to resolve his angry feelings with his enemy. Instead of voicing his displeasure and resolving his anger, the speaker chooses to let it manifest and build. Blake uses an extended metaphor where an apple symbolizes the speaker's anger to describe how the speaker continues to hold onto his anger and let it grow. The speaker is deceitful towards his enemy and acts like he is in a positive mood while his anger continues to build. Eventually, the speaker's anger ends up killing his enemy. Blake's poem explores how people are willing to resolve their issues with friends yet choose to harbor angry feelings toward their enemies. These angry feelings manifest and have negative effects. 

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"A Poison Tree" examines the effects of unresolved anger. In the poem, the narrator or persona first gets angry at a friend. He talks to his friend and that dialogue resolves his problem so that he can forgive his friend. Then he grows angry at an enemy. Rather than communicate with his enemy and hash the problem out, he holds the anger inside. As the poem puts it, he "waters" the anger with his tears, and then "suns" it with the false smiles he offers his enemy. Eventually, this anger grows and grows until it becomes a tree that bears a shiny, poisonous apple. The enemy eats the apple and dies. The poem might remind the reader of the apple that the serpent offered Eve in the Garden of Eden. The poem conveys the message that unresolved anger that is nursed as a grudge becomes a poison that can hurt other people. 

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Blake's "The Poison Tree" from his Songs of Experience is about how nursing anger and hate corrodes our souls. The poem begins by stating that: 

I was angry with my friend/I told my wrath/My wrath did end.

In other words, its best to make a "clean breast" of our feelings.

However, most of the poem shows the narrator nursing a bitter grudge against an enemy. It describes how this hate, unconfessed, grows like a plant and takes over the narrator's soul. He waters his grudge with his "tears" and suns his hate with his "smiles" of deception towards his enemy, pretending to like him.

The hate bears fruit, an apple. At this point, we should think of the Garden of Eden and the apple that the hate-filled Satan offered Adam and Eve.

The narrator has become Satan, his soul to turned to evil. He tempts his enemy with the "apple bright" and like Eve, the enemy falls for it. As the initial apple brought death to Adam and Eve (eventually), so the eating of this apple kills the narrator's foe. 

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