What phenomena, or research topic, has been studied empirically from a positivist and idealist perspective? (Whereas positivism would research this phenomena from a scientific approach, idealism...

What phenomena, or research topic, has been studied empirically from a positivist and idealist perspective? (Whereas positivism would research this phenomena from a scientific approach, idealism would research it by studying/observing real people in a real setting.) If you could provide links to scholarly research articles pertaining to this phenomena (one from a positivist perspective and the other from an idealist perspective), that would be very helpful! 

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M.P. Ossa eNotes educator| Certified Educator

The positivist perspective and the idealist perspectives are the building blocks of quantitative and qualitative research. Often, positivism is more related to predictability and systematic observation while the idealist perspective is seen more under a qualitative light as it deals with philosophical thinking and paradigms as a basis of analysis.

There is nothing wrong with either perspective; in fact, Claude Levi-Strauss even proposed that both points of view are equally effective. While the positivist approach succeeds at using a methodological approach to inquiry, idealism also entails the ability to tap onto instinct, schema, and life history to deduct how one thing correlates to another.

This being said, the positivist perspective supports empiricism as a measuring method for raw investigation of things that are already there. Current empirical research is more evident in the areas of Social Sciences and Social Psychology. C.R.I.S.P. or Current Research in Social Psychology is a peer-reviewed electronic journal that contains publications made recently of current investigation in the area of human relations. Of particular interest due to the recent affairs is an article titled "Threat, Prejudice, and Stereotyping in the Context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean Intergroup Relations (27 February 2013). This article talks about the unrest and lack of social unity that exists in a country so politically divided that its people no longer see each other as equal. Other empirical research includes the article "Sexist Humor and Beliefs that Justify Societal Sexism" (26 September 2013).Once again there you see the empirical but still scientific study of a social situation under the positivist perspective and using empiricism and a clear-cut methodology to extrapolate what causes societal sexism, how sexist humor influences it, to what degree, and how does this trend affect the mentality of many people.

Under the idealist perspective Hermeneutics is one of the research models that is nowadays known as "phenomenology". The difference between phenomenology and the empirical study of social issues is that the phenomenology consists on first person accounts of analytical observations regarding something. Therefore, intuition, schema, and connections serve as valid points of view to make the analysis. The Phenomenological Research Center (PRC) is one of the leading centers for phenomenological studies, conducting studies on areas such as religion, culture, crisis, and even love. A salient research topic that has surfaced as a phenomenology is "Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology in Dialogue" and "An Appearance of Succession Requires a Succession of Appearances" in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Volume 87, Issue 3 Pages 507–757. The abstract shows the personal touch given to phenomenological studies in comparison to positivist research:

A familiar slogan in the literature on temporal experience is that ‘a succession of appearances, in and of itself, does not amount to an experience of succession’. I show that we can distinguish between a strong and a weak sense of this slogan. I diagnose the strong interpretation of the slogan as requiring the support of an assumption I call the ‘Seems→Seemed’ claim.

Therefore the safest way to find articles with both perspectives evident is by sticking to social sciences and social psychology as main focal points of study.