Drucker argued that much economic progress had come from increases in the productivity of manual labor that was made possible by improvements in management. He believed that it was important that management needed to improve the productivity of knowledge workers (those who work primarily with information and knowledge) to create further economic growth.
Drucker argued that this meant that knowledge workers had to be given more autonomy. They had to be given the responsibility of learning more about how to be productive rather than having those above them do the thinking for them. He argued that the improvement in knowledge workers' productivity would need to come in the form of improved quality more than improved quantity. Finally, he said that knowledge workers had to be treated as assets to their firms and made to feel as if they would rather work for their firm than anywhere else.
In short, then, Drucker believed that knowledge workers needed to be treated more like important members of a team and less like simple employees. This would be the key to getting them to improve production.