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In general, the penalty for thought crime is death. That is, after all, what happens to Winston.
We also know that this is the case because Winston knows that he is dead as soon as he starts writing in the diary.
However, the penalty is not just death. When they catch Winston, they don't just bring him off somewhere and shoot him. Instead, they torture him first. They do this so that they can get him to actually stop believing in his "criminal" thoughts. It is only after that that they kill him.
Basically its room 101 , which is where a person is tortured using their worst fears and eventually if they dont submit into big brother ...death.
Since this question is tagged with history i will start from it .Thinking and thoughts in human history have never been banned or considered crimes, except for some conservative religions or some science fiction novels. In fact thinking is the main way of progress for mankind, and people were never been convicted for thoughts but for their actions .
However the term thoughtcrime appears in George Orwell's novel 1984 where the state government try to control even the thoughts of their citizens. Forbidden thoughts are punishable by death, or as the main character Winston Smith wrote - were death.
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