What is Patrick Henry claiming "they" are doing?

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I would note that this question is unclear: it never defines who "they" refers to or gives a year to contextualize the statement in general. Just as a point of reference, consider that while Patrick Henry was most famous for his defense of the Revolution against Britain, he was also an avowed anti-Federalist, who opposed the ratification of the US Constitution. Depending on which political context you are working with, you'd be left with a radically different answer to your question.

In any case, Patrick Henry's is most famous for the "Give me Liberty or Give me Death" speech, dated to March 23, 1775, so I am assuming this is what your question is referring to. In this speech, Henry is speaking against Great Britain (which would be the "they" in question). According to Patrick Henry, Britain has been tyrannical and has been marshaling its military forces to bring about an armed suppression of the colonies. For Henry, the war has already started and, with this mind, he makes here a call for armed resistance against the British.

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I am going to assume that by "they," you mean Britain.  Henry makes many accusations against the British.  One complaint is that the British are not seriously considering the various protests, petitions, complaints, and requests the colony has brought to them.  He repeatedly uses the metaphor of the chains of slavery to describe the relationship between the colony and its sovereign. Moreover, Henry observes that the British army has massed troops in the colonies and that British warships are hugging the colonies' coasts.  He expects that the British plan to step up their efforts to keep the colonies under their control through force or the constant threat of it. Overall, Henry makes the point that the British have proven themselves over the previous decade to be unwilling to engage in any kind of authentic negotiations--hence his call to arms.

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