In what part of Scotland does the story of Macbeth take place?
The play that Shakespeare wrote doesn't truly take place in any particular part of Scotland. It is vague and even untrue since Macbeth is the Thane of Glamis at the beginning of the play, and Glamis isn't in Scotland at all, but the UK. The opening scene of the play takes place in some open, barren stretch of land in the Scotland of medieval times. It is foggy and uncertain on purpose--to set the scene for the supernatural events about to occur and the appearance of the three witches.
Macbeth is named Thane of Cawdor later in the play when the current Thane has been condemned for being a traitor. Cawdor Castle is located in Nairn, Scotland. The link below will lead you to the castles of Macbeth and give you more information on those sites. There's a link on this Cawdor site titled "finding us" which gives you a great view of the country and the northern location of Nairn (slightly northeast of Inverness) where Cawdor Castle is located.
The battlefields of the play aren't given any true location. They aren't meant to be in any particular place other than somewhere in the country that is mourning for good and honest leadership--not the bloody and evil leadership of Macbeth and his wife.