What are output processes in learning and teaching?

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When we learn, we typically go through two phases: input and output. Input is the process of learning the content—this would be taught through lessons, reading, listening to lectures, being tutored, having a friend explain the content, and so forth. Output is the product of learning or, in other words, the demonstration that learning has occurred. This could be shown on a test, quiz, presentation, essay assignment, or in short answer questions. Output is extremely important in learning because it helps to show that students are able to take the knowledge that they have learned and apply it. Without output, teachers have no way of knowing that the students understand the information to a level necessary to ensure that they can demonstrate the learning. For example, you can read a chapter from a textbook and you may think that you have retained the information, but the process of writing an essay about the information is much different, and a way to demonstrate what you have learned in a practical way, otherwise completing the reading serves no purpose.

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If we define Output as the "end product", then the Output of teaching is the knowledge passed on to the student and the output of learning is knowledge gained. In both cases, models of education often require objectives to be known and Output to be measured.

Typically, Output for learning is measured by course grades and can be supplemented by standardized test scores, such as the SAT and ACT, or by mandated state-wide tests.

Output for teaching, however, could be considered subjective and varies amongst the different types of schools: primary, secondary (high school), and post-secondary (college). Many teachers are required to be evaluated annually by faculty and staff. And some schools track the test scores of teacher's students as an appropriate Output measure.

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