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What is the origin of the English word "reason,"including meanings and development

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The English word "reason" has two main categorical meanings. They are (1) the facts, etc, that serve as the motivation for a course of action or a statement in an argument and (2) to form judgements, conclusions or inferences; to think logically, to call into question, and to hold discourse over something. The etymology of "reason" in the first meaning is that it came into English as a loanword into Middle English as reson, resoun or reisun borrowed from Old French reisun or reson, which was derived from Latin the ration form of ratio. The meaning of "sanity" was first...

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