What are the new poetic techniques used in The Waste Land?

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"The Waste Land" is notable for its many different voices. In presenting them, Eliot uses a poetic technique akin to polyphony in music. At most points in the poem, we're unaware of precisely who or what is speaking. Voices come and go, drifting in and out of the unfolding drama, leaving behind them the merest trace of personal identity.

This is perfectly deliberate on Eliot's part, for he recognizes that a new age has dawned, one in which all the old certainties have been undermined. Society has become fractured, atomized; the cultural hegemony of the upper classes, the traditional transmitters of high culture and learning, is crumbling. All that's left in this cultural desert, this anonymous wasteland of the modern city, are fragments, artifacts, and bits of the past gathered together by Eliot from the wreckage of history. Hence the voices from Kyd, Dante , Baudelaire, and Wagner, extracts of Elizabethan drama—their fleeting presence reminding us of a vanished world and of the state...

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