What is the NIBR? What are two advantages and two disadvantages of the NIBR? 

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Noelle Thompson | High School Teacher | eNotes Employee

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Well, in the topic of simple "Reference" and without giving clarification as to whether you mean NIBR as the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research or NIBR as the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (which is often abbreviated due to language differences as NIBR), I am not sure which one you mean.  As a result, I will be happy to briefly answer the question for both.

In regard to NIBR as the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, we can easily find two advantages and two disadvantages for this institute.  The first advantage of NIBR as the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research is its advancements in translational science (which is the kind of science that fills in the gaps of other sciences).  The second advantage of NIBR as the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research is the advancement between knowledge and application. The disadvantages of NIBR as the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research would mainly be ethical:  taking science out of the lab and testing it in the community.  A further disadvantage would be the possible failure of experimental treatments, such as the current one NIBR is testing to treat spinal muscular atrophy.

In regards to NIBR as the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (which is often abbreviated due to language differences as NIBR), again, the advantages and disadvantages are readily identifiable.  The first advantage of NIBR as the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research is the advancement of science based out of, specifically, Oslo, Norway.  Not a city known for its great advancements in science, the NIBR as the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research lifts them high above other European countries and cities.  A second advantage of NIBR as the Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research is stated in its purpose:

[To conduct] studies which promote society's ability to tackle environmental and social development challenges.

Unlike the former NIBR institute, this one focuses on social science research (as opposed to scientific research).  Both disadvantages are ironically connected to the first advantage:  its focus is only Norway.  Norwegian "environmental factors" and Norwegian "social development challenges" can be vastly different from other nations' (and other continents, in fact), therefore, although useful in study, the translation into practical application for other countries might not be quite as apropos. 

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