Neo-colonialism can be defined as colonialism through other means. Under neocolonialism, the more powerful country will not actually have its soldiers occupying a country or running its government, but will rather have so many economic and social ties that the smaller, weaker country is basically under the control of the more powerful country. While France no longer maintains colonies in Africa, some nations such as Chad, are so deeply entwined with France that it can be said to be a neocolonial relationship.
Webster's defines Neocolonialism as "the economic and political policies by which a great power indirectly maintains or extends its influence over other areas or people." That is, it is not necessary to establish colonies or settlements within another country in order to establish power over it. For instance, you might say that the relationship between the United States and Afghanistan is an example of neocolonialism.