What national issues and attitudes combined to bring an end to Reconstruction by 1877?

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By the time Reconstruction came to an end in 1877, the northern states had largely underwritten the rebuilding of the southern states as well as stationed federal troops throughout the South to ensure that slavery would not return. The stationing of troops was a particularly aggrieving measure to southerners but was needed due to the "black codes" that southern state governments introduced as a way to keep black people as second-class citizens.

Once the war ended, people did not just return to normal life. There were skirmishes between federal troops with southern insurgents for many years during Reconstruction. Rebuilding and ongoing occupation of the South also took its toll on the US economy as it was hit by the Panic of 1873 following the collapse of the railroad investment firm, Jay Cooke and Co. The depression lasted until 1879 and saw the closure of banks and factories throughout the country, hampering reconstruction efforts and overall economic growth.

Lastly, there was the...

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