The Golden Age of Islam occurred around the 8th century AD. Historically, it was poetry that was preeminent in Islamic culture. Most prominent was the qasidah--a very long poem that usually tells of the poet's life.
At the time of the Golden Age of Islam, prose started to become just as important as poetry. It was at this time that Abu 'Uthman 'Umar bin Bahr al-Jahiz's prose became popular. He is best known for the book Kitab al-Hayawan, which means "Book of Animals." This text is comprised of a series of anecdotes relating to animals, with some being factual and some being made up. They are kind of like Aesop's fables. He also wrote Kitab al-Bukhala, which is more about people than animals. This book tells the reader a lot about society and hierarchies in the Golden Age.
A few other authors of this period were: Hakim Abu’l Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi, Mohammad Ali Naqib al-Mamalek, and Ibn al-Nafis.