What is the most important biomolecule of life?

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A biomolecule is, by definition, any molecule present in a living being. There are 4 main biomolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. All these have their own unique functions and necessities. Proteins, made up of amino acids, are responsible for enzymatic actions and other structural necessities of a cell. Nucleic acids, made up of nucleotides, are responsible for genetic information. Carbohydrates, made up of monosaccharides, are the energy source of cells and have other structural responsibilities. Lipids are the responsible for energy storage in a cell and are the major component of the cell membrane. 

Among all these biomolecules, I would pick nucleic acids as the most important for life. There are two types of nucleic acids: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). DNA molecules contain the genetic information and RNA molecules convert this genetic information into amino acid sequences. DNA and RNA, along with proteins, are key to the survival and existence of life forms.

One may also want to study the double helical structure of DNA and RNA molecules and also the bases that make them up.

Hope this helps. 

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