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What is morphology? What are morphs, allomorphs and morphemes? What's the difference between them?

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Morphology is a study of words. It basically deals with word formation, examines the relationship between words, and analyzes their constituent elements.

Morpheme is the smallest unit of a word, which has a meaning, lexical or grammatical, and cannot be divided into smaller units. For instance, the word "unpresentable" consists of 3 morphemes -- un + present + able. Un is a prefix, which means "not" and is used in this example to negate the adjective "presentable." The suffix able is used to form adjectives and is usually placed at the end of a verb (useable, loveable, deniable, etc.).

Morphs form...

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Morphology is the study of a language's linguistic units, or morphemes. 

A morpheme is the smallest unit of a language that still has meaning. Morphemes are the parts of words, such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots. The word "unbendable" has three morphemes. These are the three smaller units that make up the word. The prefix "un" means "not". The root "bend" means to force an object into a curved shape. The suffix "-able" means "capable of". 

Each morpheme has a meaning on its own, and together they comprise a word. Notice that both the root, "bend", and the suffix, "able" could stand alone as words themselves. The prefix "un" is not a word on its own, yet it still has its own meaning. A word can always stand alone. A morpheme may or may not be able to stand alone depending on its meaning and function, but it does always have meaning. 

An allomorph is a morpheme that varies in sound while retaining the same spelling. An example would be the "-ed" suffix, which has three sounds in the English language: /ed/ as in played, /t/ as in tossed, and /d/ as in burned. The morpheme "ed" indicates past tense and is spelled the same in all three words, but has a different sound for each. 

A morph is how a morpheme is written. It is the string of phonological units that make up a morpheme. The morpheme "bleak" is comprised of three morphs: the consonant blend "bl", the vowel pair "ea", and the consonant "k". A morph then, is not a morpheme, since these smaller units do not have any meaning on their own.