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We are looking at the molecular structures of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. Amino acids are all composed of central carbon attached to a carboxylic acid, an amine, a side chain, and a hydrogen (in most cases). The carboxylic acids and amines of neighboring amino acids come together to form amide bonds which link them all together in a long polymer chain.
Carbohydrates are sugars. They can be either simple sugars like mono and disaccharides or long polymers of sugars such as polysaccharides. All saccharides are based on small molecules made up of C, H, and O. They are composed of small carbon chains that are often cyclic in nature and have numerous hydroxyl groups attached.
Lipids are fats. They are composed of a central glycerol molecule that has three carbons and a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon. These hydroxyl groups are then attached to one, two, or three fatty acids via an ester linkage. Fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxylic acid at one end.
Nucleic acids are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They are polymers of nucleotides which consist of a phosphate group, a cyclic pentose sugar, and a base composed of a nitrogen filled hetercycle. There are four available bases for DNA, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. RNA replaces thymine with uracil.
Unfortunately I am unable to draw these chemical compounds here. You can refer to the links below for drawn structures.
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