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Modernism is a historical and artistic period ranging from around 1865 until the end of World War II. Modernism parallels the rise of industrialism and technology. Modernism is also considered to be a varied response (political, philosophical and artistic) to the challenges of a new fast-paced world and a response to the work of thinkers such as Freud, Marx, Nietzsche and Darwin who, in each their own ways, challenged humanity to consider how culture is a construction, not something inherent. And with Darwin, the awakening was a challenge to ideological authority (in his case, particularly the authority of the Bible) and therefore a challenge to the traditional foundations of morality, science and social life. So, Modernism was a rethinking of past beliefs and attempts to form new narratives (or metanarratives); that is, new ways of thinking about the world which take into account all these dramatic changes.

Some of these new narratives, artistic innovations and philosophies include:...

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