What is the model of the solar system called in which earth and the outer planets revolve around the sun?  

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The heliocentric model of the solar system is the model in which the sun is at the center of the solar system and the planets revolve around it. This model was first proposed by Nikolai Copernicus in the 16th century, and is also called the Copernican model. Galileo provided evidence for the heliocentric model in the 17th century. He made observations of the motion of the planets using a telescope, which was invented after Copernicus' death. Galileo observed moons orbiting Jupiter which showed that everything didn't orbit the earth. People of Galileo's time weren't convinced by his evidence because it opposed their religious beliefs. Galileo was sentenced to house arrest for the last few years of his life because of his scientific work. 

Prior to acceptance of the heliocentric model most people had believed since ancient times that the celestial bodies orbited the earth. It seemed this way from their perspective. The geocentric theory is the idea that the entire universe revolves around the earth. This idea was first proposed by Aristotle and furthered by Ptolemy in 140 AD.

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