I'm not sure what text you're referring to but the terms you mention are all literary techniques used to make writing more vivid and alive for the reader. A comparison makes one thing relate to another and is most commonly a metaphor or a simile. A simile uses 'like' or 'as' to make the comparison while a metaphor more or less says one thing is another e.g. 'sunshine flooded the valley' is a metaphor, making the sunshine appear to be liquid, whereas 'the sun poured down like honey' is a simile. Both comarisons make the sun seem like liquid but the simile brings in the extra elements of warmth and golden colour through the word 'honey'. Onomatopoeia creates sound: the clatter of cups and saucers as the tables were laid, the rumble of thunder in the disance, raindrops drumming on the tin roof etc. Hyperbole is deliberate exaggeration for emphasis: he exploded in anger. Personification means making something not human act in a human way: the wind whispered and sighed among the trees.