Enotes policy allows me to answer one question per post. I will answer the first question you posted.
Since you haven’t mentioned a specific war, I will focus on World War I. The government did several things to ensure that people were supportive of the war effort, including a few that were controversial. The government created the War Industries Board to coordinate the production of war materials. The government didn’t want businesses arguing over what would be produced, who would produce it, and how much would be produced.
The government also encouraged people to conserve food. People were encouraged to grow their own food in what was known as the victory garden. People were encouraged to not eat bread on Mondays and meat on Tuesdays. This was known as Wheatless Mondays and Meatless Tuesdays.
The government created the Committee on Public Information to sway public opinion in favor of the war. Posters, pamphlets, and speeches were used to accomplish this. The government also encouraged people to buy war bonds, which were often called victory bonds.
The National War Labor Board was created to help prevent strikes. Companies were pressured to settle disputes with workers in return for a promise that workers wouldn’t go on strike.
The government passed a few laws that infringed on people’s freedoms. The Espionage Act made anti-war activities illegal. For example, people who interfered with the draft could be jailed and/or fined. The Sedition Act made public opposition to the war illegal. People could be jailed for saying false things about our war effort.
The government did many things to ensure that people supported the war effort in World War I.