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This story is narrated in the third person but some of the narrator's comments seem to suggest Victor's own thoughts. Victor has just lost his job at the BIA, the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He only manages to get $100 from his reservation's Tribal Council. A young man, he is frustrated with the general plight of Indians on reservations and having just lost his job, he is probably also frustrated with the United States government.
Early in the story, he bemoans that fact that no one on the reservation has any money, except "cigarette and firework salespeople." So, the Council has little money to give. No one on the reservation has money (except Thomas). Victor understands that his people have been oppressed for generations, so he is still frustrated that his people are still so poor and helpless. He commiserates with them but is also annoyed.
That being said, he does have some yearning to connect with them and to connect with their traditions. When he meets Thomas at the trading post, the narrator adds, "Victor felt a sudden need for tradition." This story presents the reservation Indians in a truthfully, complex way. Victor is frustrated by their lack of progress (at least financially) as a people, but he also still has a need for connecting to traditional ways. He is embarrassed by Thomas' traditional story-telling ways but he sees how Thomas can connect to people: Indians and outsiders. Note how he befriends Cathy on the airplane.
The only indication about how outsiders see Indians is indirectly noted in the scene with Cathy. She complains that the United States government boycotted the 1980 Olympics and Thomas adds that she has a lot in common with Indians. No one laughs at this, so it is hard to divine what Cathy thinks. But given how friendly she was, her silence might have been a sad agreement that both she and Indians were/are "screwed" by the United States government. In fact, her silence might also indicate that the felt bad complaining since the plight of Indians is much worse than her own. Therefore, she would feel sympathetic towards them.
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