An independence movement is a movement that is trying to gain political independence for some area that it thinks should be its own country. Independence movements can be conducted by colonized people against their colonizers. For example, the Vietnamese fight against the French after WWII can be seen in this way as the Vietnamese felt their country should be independent rather than being a colony. Such movements can also push for partitions in an existing country. A recent example of this was the successful movement for the independence of what is now South Sudan.
Independence refers to a state of freedom or self governance free of interference or control from an external party. On the other hand, a movement refers to a group of individuals who have united and combined efforts in order to advance shared ideas whether political, social or economic. The two words combined mean a group of people who have come together to advocate for freedom. For example, The Indian Independence Movement is a type of independence movement. It existed in India between 1857 and 1947 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandi. The movement made use of non-violent methods to push for freedom from its British colonial master who had infringed on their political autonomy, imposed Christianity upon them and racially discriminated against them. This independence movement eventually succeeded in gaining freedom for the oppressed Indians.