What is the meaning of the word "camp" in relation to Frank O'Hara's poetry?
The Oxford English Dictionary (according to the article on “camp” cited below)
gives 1909 as the first print citation of camp as "ostentatious, exaggerated, affected, theatrical; effeminate or homosexual; pertaining to, characteristic of, homosexuals".
Although the word “camp” later came to have much broader meanings – meanings not always associated with homosexuals – the meaning quoted above fits much of the work produced by the American poet Frank O’Hara. The word “camp” continues to suggest anything that seems “ostentatious, exaggerated, affected, [and] theatrical,” especially if these traits also seem deliberate, humorous, ironic, and defiant. Things or works that seem “camp” are usually written in mockery or defiance of sober, serious, middle-class culture.
In all these ways and for all these reasons, O’Hara’s poem “At Kamin’s Dance Bookshop” might be considered a particularly “campy” poem. Although the poem seems to celebrate a famous nineteenth-century Austrian ballerina, it was dedicated to O’Hara’s male lover, Vincent Warren, a handsome New York ballet dancer. Elements of "camp" seem apparent almost immediately:
Shade of Fanny Elssler! I dreamt that you passed over
me last night in sleep
was it you who was fast asleep or was it me? sweet shade
shade shade shill spade agony freak
geek you were not nor were you made of ribbons but
of warm moving flesh & tulle
you were twining your left leg around your right as if
your right were me
I’ve never felt so wide awake
Among the elements of “camp” in these lines are the following:
- The poem opens with an exclamation about a ballet dancer – the kind of exclamation one might stereotypically associate (in a male speaker) with an effeminate male homosexual. O’Hara is obviously mocking this old stereotype by embracing it. He is having fun with the stereotype by playing into it and up to it. Indeed, the whole tone of this poem is playful and non-serious, and it is this very refusal to take things seriously that helps to make the poem seem “campy.” The poem seems even funnier if we assume that the speaker is not really imagining Fanny Elsller at all but instead is using this pretense as a way to express erotic feelings for Vincent Warren.
- The “campy” playfulness involves not only what is said but the exaggeration implied by the tone. The poem is also playful in the way it dispenses with such standard elements of a “serious” poem as predictable meter, predictable line length, predictable stanza form, or predictable anything. The poem is in part a joyful joke, and it is partly its jokiness that makes it “campy.”
- Particularly playful and campy is the flood of similar-sounding words that begins at the end of line 3 and extends to the beginning of line 5. Here the speaker is largely and simply playing with sounds.
- Other aspects of “camp” in these quoted lines involve the fairly explicit allusions to flesh and suggestions of sexual arousal: “warm moving flesh . . . / you were twining your left leg around your right as if / . . . your right were me.” Such phrasing, especially in a homoerotic context, would have seemed fairly provocative to most of O’Hara’s contemporaries. The poem is “campy” in part, then, because it tries to shock and even offend some of its readers, as the lines that follow the ones just quoted suggest:
I seemed to be wearing tights entwined with your legs
and a big sash over my crotch
I really need to first give you a bit of background. You will get to you answer soon enough and understand it better.
O'Hara is one of the quintessential forefathers to American Postmodern poetics in his subversive approach to modernist aesthetics, and his humorous treatment of meaning and "the meaningful." He calls into question, not only interpretation and representation, but also, the notion of "the importance of importance." He accomplishes this in a variety of ways:
1) deconstructing conventional notions of beauty,
2) aestheticizing the quotidian,
3) problemitizing dominant paradigms,
4) critiquing culture, and the literature that describes it, via a subversion of conventional and traditional notions of significance and signification, and through use of parody and satire, and finally,
5) through the use of camp, which creates a humorous, yet critical investigation of representation and various interpretations of culture/human experience.
Structurally, O'Hara explores both symbolist poetics and French Surrealism, but exposes the limits of both.
I hope this helps, as I also need to write an essay on O'Hara and Camp.