What is a matter transformation and energy transformation in photosynthesis?

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Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen in the presence of sunlight. The balanced chemical reaction for this process can be written as:

`6CO_2 (g) + 6H_2O (aq) + sunlight -> C_6H_12O_6 (s) + 6O_2 (g)`

There are different phases (or states) of matter, such as solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Photosynthesis represents...

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In photosynthesis, organic carbon containing substances (carbohydrates or sugars) are generated from carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is also produced as a by-product. This constitutes the total matter transformation is photosynthesis.

Light energy transforms into chemical potential energy, through a very efficient biotransformation process – this is energy transformation. About 0.05% of the total `10^22` kJ energy which reaches the earth every year from the sun is assimilated by photosynthesis. This is the general energetic pool for all living processes of the earth.

On a more detailed note, photosynthesis can be considered as a reaction during which water is split, driven by the energy of photons, producing O_2 and transferring hydrogen to the redox system NADPH/NADP^+, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Simultaneously a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane is generated (Thylakoids are building blocks of chloroplasts). In a separate process, this leads to the synthesis of ATP, the energy coin. Subsequently, an ATP-consuming synthesis of carbohydrates occurs. This process is usually called the dark reaction of photosynthesis occurring in the stroma of chloroplasts. The process of photosynthesis can be represented roughly by the following scheme:

`6CO_2 + 6H_2O stackrel (hnu)(rarr) C_6H_12O_6 + 6O_2`

This process is characterized by a standard free Gibbs’ energy of reaction, `DeltaG^o` =2868 kJ/mole, made possible only with greater input energy from light and by very efficient catalysis of chlorophylls.

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