The previously posted answer by Giorgiana appears to confuse between perception in general and the gestalt principles of perception.
The gestalt principles of perception pertain to the fact that we perceive things mentally not exactly as they exist as unrelated collection of elements forming the reality. Rather we tend to perceive the different elements organised in a whole form. As a matter of fact the German word gestalt means form, shape or pattern. This aspect of perception has been covered in the previous answer under the heading of "perceptual integration law".
Gestalt laws of perceptions describe the various mechanism that contribute to formation of gestalt perception. The more important ones of these laws are described below.
Law of similarity: Mind groups similar elements in collective entities or totality.
Law of proximity: Spatial or temporal proximity of elements can make them seen as a collective group.
Law of symmetry:Symmetrical figures are perceived inspite of distance.
Law of continuity: Mind perceive visual, auditory or kinetic patterns to continue beyond what is objective reality.
Law of common fate: Elements moving in the same direction are perceived as belonging to the same group
Law of closure: People tend to see patterns that are incomplete as complete. For example a fragmented circle with made not of one but multiple disjointed lies is seen as a circle inspite of the gaps that exist.
Law of figure ground perception: People tend to see any kind of pattern as figures against a background. For examples letter in a book or figures drawn on a wall.
The human being is living in a diverse world of objects and phenomena that exist in space and unfold in time. To establish relationships based on information with them and to adapt them, the human being has perceptual capabilities, far more complex than animals.
Perception is a function of adjusting the information about events from external or internal environment, via sensory mechanisms.
The major perception laws are:
-perceptual integration law, expressing that object attributes are not reported separately, but in a unified image that includes both significant attributes and those of detail and background.
- law of perceptual selectivity, which refers to the fact that human does not reflect to the same degree all boosts' but he chooses.
- law of significance: the perception is influenced by the significance that we give to the object perceived.
- perceptual constant law: perceptive image remains constant in terms of size, shape and color of objects.
-projective law of perceptual image: neuro-functional image is made at cortical level, but psychologically it is projected at the source.