AP World History's Period 4 includes (roughly) the years 1450–1750. This includes the Colombian Exchange, in which things like flora and fauna as well as diseases and pathogens were exchanged between the Old and New World.
The Byzantine Empire (the successor of the Eastern Roman Empire) was ended when the Ottomans conquered its capitol in Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey). This conquest allowed Muslims to control trade in this region.
In Europe, the Renaissance and Reformation confronted the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church regarding many things from salvation to creationism.
This period also saw the rise of joint-stock companies, a financial arrangement in a business wherein individuals have partial ownership in a company by means of shares. The British East India Company was one of these.