It seems to me that the main theme of this play is the effect of irrational fear upon society. Miller did, of course, base his treatment of the Salem trials on the effects of McCarthyism. McCarthy played on people's fear of communism, and the fear that there were invivible communist infiltrators working their way into positions of authority in American society. He worked on that fear in a manner calculated to arouse irrational, emotional responses in the public instead of reasoned reactions.
In the Crucible, people are subjected to fears of their neighbors and fears of unseen influences working among them, just like the fears McCarthyism fostered in Americans.
Miller used the standard history textbook versions of the Salem trials as his basic setting, and then used the normal sort of literary devices to expound upon this theme. Of course, it is a work of fiction based loosely upon an historic incident. The actual Salem trials were far different from the situation in the play. ...
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