What is the main internal conflict in the balcony scene in Romeo and Juliet?

The main internal conflict in the balcony scene in Romeo and Juliet is Juliet's turmoil in having to choose whether to follow her heart, which is Romeo, or comfortable practicality, which is following her father's wishes.

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Juliet has a lot to lose, and that is significant in considering the internal conflict she faces. She is from an influential family, and her father has arranged a suitable marriage for her. As a woman in this era, she is forced via societal constraints to rely on the men in her life to provide security for her. There is almost no possibility that she could hope to sustain herself, especially not with the luxuries she has grown so accustomed to as a Capulet.

After falling in love with Romeo, she realizes she has a tough choice to make. To follow her heart means to follow Romeo and almost certainly be forced to give up all that it means to be a Capulet. Later she will find that she has even underestimated her father's reaction as he commands her to marry Paris—otherwise she will be effectively dead to him. Although often romanticized, Juliet in this scene needs to know with certainty if Romeo is worth the risk.

Before she even knows that Romeo is listening, Juliet ponders this issue aloud. She wishes Romeo would simply give up his name because his only fault is being a Montague. Apart from having the last name of her family's sworn enemies, she believes that Romeo is her ideal companion:

What’s Montague? It is nor hand, nor foot,
Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part
Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!
What’s in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other word would smell as sweet. (act 2, scene 2, lines 42–46)

Romeo ends up convincing Juliet that his last name means nothing compared to her love, and they begin making plans for a future together.

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The main internal conflict in the balcony scene derives from the fact that Romeo and Juliet have been called upon by their feelings for each other to make a crucial, life-changing decision: they must either follow their hearts or drop the whole thing and remain loyal to their families's wishes.

Though this is often presented as a lushly romantic scene, there's tough-minded realism at work here: the young lovers instinctively know what's at stake. They know that giving in to their deepest emotions will mean turning their backs on their respective families, acutely aware as they are that the long and bitter feud between the Montagues and the Capulets shows no sign of abating anytime soon. That being the case, Romeo and Juliet have a decision to make—one that will determine how they live the rest of their lives—but that's easier said than done, so both characters are deeply conflicted about the choice that they must make.

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While I definitely agree with the above answer, I would add that Juliet also exhibits an internal conflict over the speed of the relationship with Romeo. She fears that she may have been too forward and that maybe Romeo will think less of her for giving her love so readily. After all, she kisses him within the first few minutes of their meeting. She debates that he would like her better if she had been shier. She tells him,

Or, if thou thinkest I am too quickly won,
I’ll frown and be perverse and say thee nay,
So thou wilt woo, but else not for the world.
In truth, fair Montague, I am too fond,
And therefore thou mayst think my havior light.
Romeo, of course, assures her of his love. Nevertheless, she is wary of the haste with which things are proceeding. She urges Romeo to go home and consider the consequences before jumping into anything. She does her best to slow Romeo's advances. She says,
Although I joy in thee,
I have no joy of this contract tonight.
It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden,
Too like the lightning, which doth cease to be
Ere one can say “It lightens.” Sweet, good night.
This bud of love, by summer’s ripening breath,
May prove a beauteous flower when next we meet.
Romeo will not hear of it, however, and he asks her to marry him in the next lines. She ultimately gives in to his charm and agrees to wed him as soon as possible. Her conflicts disappear as she becomes a faithful wife who would go to any lengths to stay with Romeo.
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The main internal conflict present in the balcony scene is that Juliet struggles with the fact that she is a Capulet and the boy that she loves (Romeo) is a Montague.  From the first time that Juliet appears on her balcony, this conflict is evident.  Juliet says,

     "O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?
      Deny thy father and refuse thy name!
      Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,
      And I'll no longer be a Capulet."  (A. 2, s. 2, l. 35-39)

Here, Juliet is asking why Romeo has to be a Montague and that if the conditions require it, she will renounce her name in order to be with Romeo.  This theme is prevalent throughout the act in many of the lines that Juliet delivers. 

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