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Chapter 13 describes the rise of a socialist and Progressive critique of society in turn-of-the-century America. A number of factors fueled this critique. Zinn describes popular opposition to the Spanish-American War, as well as imperialism in general. He outlines the terrible working conditions that began to enter the public consciousness in the late nineteenth-century. He discusses the emergence of Jim Crow in the South. Having described these abuses, he proceeds to a narrative of how radicals in the nation resisted them. The clearest example is the rise of radical leftist unions, particularly the Industrial Workers of the World (the IWW, or the Wobblies,) who grew in influence and in numbers during the period. But Zinn shows that the movement was not limited to the fringes of American politics. Progressives throughout the nation began to seek action to remedy the abuses of industrial capitalism, seeking government action that would guarantee better working conditions, restrict child labor, protect the right to organize, and other reforms. The more radical insurgency with the Wobblies as the vanguard was crushed, often violently. But Zinn's purpose is to show how mainstream radical critiques of society were at the time. Eugene Debs is shown to be one of the nation's most popular political leaders, and Helen Keller, whose image has been somewhat watered down over the years, is shown to be a true radical socialist, opposed to imperialism, advocating woman suffrage, and pushing for reforms for the working class. Moreover, Progressive reforms, which Zinn interprets on page 344 as an attempt at "stablizing the system in the interests of big business," endured.
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