What is the main context of "The Long Love that in my Thought doth Harbour"?

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The response below suggests that Wyatt is writing a parody of Petrarch's Sonnet 140. This may not be the correct term, since parody involves a critical distancing from, or even mockery of, the original. That does not seem to characterize Wyatt's use of the Italian sonnet tradition. Wyatt is more invested in using his native English as a fitting vehicle for the fashionable work occurring on the continent. Just as we point to Chaucer as an early poet in the vernacular, we can point to Wyatt as one who translated the Renaissance ideals to England.

Wyatt, like Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was a notable humanist gentleman in the English court. Traveling to Italy, men such as Wyatt would have seen signs of a new humanist aesthetic, which they brought back with them to the English court.

From early writers such as Wyatt, we can trace the English poetic tradition in Spenser, Sidney, and Shakespeare. In these latter poets, we find a debt to Wyatt and Surrey, even while the younger poets engaged in more original subject matter.

Petrarch's sonnets were one of the more fortunate items to be so translated north. While many English poets experimented with the sonnet conventions, Wyatt had early success not in merely translating the Italian poems into his native English but in recognizing the expressive power of these short lyric poems if properly adapted to the idiosyncrasies of a non-Romance language such as English.

The web site linked below contains both Wyatt's and Surrey's imitations, as well as Petrarch's original. One can see here the flexibility that comes from playing with form and content in these sonnets.

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He is writing a parody of Petrarch's Rime 140.  The basic context is that he is keeping a secret deep in his heart regarding the person whom he truly loves.  By reading the poem, it seems to be a "he" whom he loves, and the "she" whom he has learned to love (probably from peer pressure of society) is due to reason which has "reined" in the true desire of his heart.  The desire of his heart is hardy, and his hidden himself from the speaker's view...and the speaker is questioning his ability to go on living the way he presently lives or to "live faithfully".  I assume this last has two meanings--faithful to his heart (which means he will pursue a love with another man (which is disdained and considered forbidden) or faithful to the accepted way of life as approved by man and his "master".

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