The purpose of Computer Numerical Control is to enhance conventional machining processes by bringing the following advantages: increase of productivity; manufacture complex shapes; simplification of tooling and work holding; reduction of lead time, accuracy of work done.
CNC machine tools comprise the following main components:
- machine tools whose tables are controlled in X and Y axes and spindles controlled in Z axis.
- drive systems: drive motors, leading ball-screws and amplifier circuits.
- machine control units which read and decode part program instructions, generate axis motions commands, receive feedback signals regarding the position and the speed of each driven axis, etc.
- part programs that are a series of lines comprising the instructions needed to machine the part.
- program input devices which help to input the part program within CNC control.
- feedback systems that measure the position of cutting tool at each moment by mean of transducers of position and speed.