There are, of course, many literary devices employed in the epic. Here are a few to consider:
Similies: Similies compare two similar things, often using "like" or "as".
The Trojans, coop'd within their walls so long,
Unbar their gates, and issue in a throng,
Like swarming bees, and with delight survey
The camp deserted, where the Grecians lay:
and, in reference to the troops, who were
Driv'n like a flock of doves along the sky
Another device commonly used is that of alliteration (the repetition of initial letters or sounds) such as "Fortune favor'd" and "Haste hence".
Imagery (language that makes the reader form a mental picture and often engages many of the senses) is another frequent literary device. In Books II and IV, the image of wounds is prominent,
From Book II:
The lukewarm blood came rushing thro' the wound,
The stumps are pierc'd with oft-repeated wounds:
My limbs, not feeling wounds, nor fearing death.
From Book IV:
Wounds with a random shaft the careless hind,
Frantic with fear, impatient of the wound,
Clogg'd in the wound the cruel weapon stands;
In addition to "wounds," also be aware of the recurrent imagery of snakes, hunting, storms, and fire.