One of the literary devices that Baldwin uses is situational irony, in which events turn out in the opposite way of what is expected. He starts the book with the death of his father in 1943, a few hours before his father's last child is born. In another example of situational irony, his father's funeral takes place on Baldwin's nineteenth birthday.
He later uses personification to describe this situation and writes, "Death, however, sat as purposefully at my father's bedside as life stirred within my mother's womb." In this excerpt, Baldwin writes of death as a human-like character who is juxtaposed with the force of life, which is about to cause his mother to give birth.
Baldwin also uses powerful metaphors. He refers to his having a "blind fever" and writes that "once this disease is contracted, one can never really be carefree again." He also writes that every African-American person has this "rage in his blood." In these examples, Baldwin compares the rage that African Americans feel about racism and their treatment by whites to a kind of fever or disease that is never cured.
The author also uses similes. For example, he writes of the rage in his head, "there was another me trapped in my skull like a jack-in-the-box who might escape my control at any moment and fill the air with screaming." In this simile, he compares his anger to a jack-in-the box that might explode at any moment.
Baldwin uses a variety of literary and rhetorical techniques in Notes of a Native Son. He uses direct address and shifting narrative points of view to name a couple. His use of imagery stands out in the essays, most notably in the last essay of the collection, "Stranger in the Village." Baldwin describes a trip that he made to Switzerland where he stayed in a small village. He paints a vivid picture of the village and the peculiarities that mark its character:
[While discussing the high number of people who visit the local hot spring) There is often something beautiful, there is always something awful, in the spectacle of a person who has lost one of his faculties, a faculty he never questioned until it was gone, and who struggles to recover it.
So, Baldwin not only details the images in the essay, he also reflects on what he has seen and experienced.