What literary element is "Shakespeare is hard"?
What literary element does this sentence have an example of: "On the pallid bust of Pallas, just above my chamber door"?
The line "a wind with a wolf's head," contains an example of what literary element?
I'll add the following to your answer.
Pallid and Pallas do create alliteration with the "p" sound, and they also provide repetition and unity with the use of assonance: the repetition of vowel sounds (short "a" sounds, in this case). They do not constitute internal rhyme, because they do not rhyme: the final syllables are not identical and do not sound the same. Variations of true rhyme do exist, but -id and -as in the final syllables do not fit into any category of rhyme.
"Shakespeare is hard," I believe, is an example of synecdoche: naming a whole for its part. "Shakespeare" means "reading Shakespeare." Shakespeare, the person, is not literally hard. Reading him can be. I'm not entirely sure about this, but the figurative language being used seems to involve naming. Another editor may be more certain.
Finally, I believe "wind with a wolf's head" is simply metaphor. The wind is being compared to the head of a wolf. The wind is the tenor of the metaphor (what the writer wants to describe), and the wolf's head is the vehicle (what the writer uses to describe the tenor). There is an obvious comparison, and neither like or as is used, which would make it a simile. Instead, the comparison is direct, which makes the line a metaphor.
"On the pallid bust of Pallas, just above my chamber door," has 3 that I will address:
Pallas is an allusion. An allusion is a reference to something famous, whether it be a person, image, literary work, or location.
Pallid and Pallas could be referred to as internal rhyme, rhyme that occurs within a line, or alliteration, the repetition of consonant sounds.
I don't think "Shakespeare is hard," has a definitive literary element in it. It is a declarative sentence with a predicate adjective.
I would say "a wind with a wolf's head" could be a figure of speech because it is not real, but doesn't really fit any other type of figurative language.