What literary devices are used in Great Expectations chapters 48–49?

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When Pip narrates his walk with Mr. Jaggers to Little Britain, he uses language that appeals to readers' senses to allow them to picture the scene as if they were there. He particularly emphasizes what Little Britain looks like when he says:

...while the lights were springing up brilliantly in the shop windows, and the street lamplighters, scarcely finding ground enough to plant their ladders on in the midst of the afternoon’s bustle, were skipping up and down and running in and out...

A simile compares two things using words such as "like" and "as." Pip compares the effect of the shadows of the fire falling on two objects to a children's game:

As I stood idle by Mr. Jaggers’s fire, its rising and falling flame made the two casts on the shelf look as if they were playing a diabolical game at bo-peep with me.

This is also an example of irony, because we do not expect a children's game to be labeled as "diabolical," a word that implies evil. The overall effect of these two literary devices is humor.

A metaphor also compares two things, but it does not use "like" or "as." One thing is directly said to be another, though it cannot be literally true. For example, "the girl is a ray of sun in my life" would mean that this girl brings joy to the speaker. Chapter 48 contains a metaphor. Pip recalls something Mr. Jaggers has said about a woman: "A wild beast tamed, you called her." The woman in question is not actually a wild beast, but she must demonstrate the characteristics or qualities of one.

Here's an example from Chapter 49:

I will quote a passage and then analyze the simile.

The nooks of ruin where the old monks had once had their refectories and gardens, and where the strong walls were now pressed into the service of humble sheds and stables, were almost as silent as the old monks in their graves.

Pip passes a monastery that has fallen into decay, and he notes that the physical spaces, or the "nooks of ruin," are empty and quiet. He compares the stillness of these physical spaces to the stillness of the monks in their graves. By linking the two, he emphasizes the idea that the monastery has fallen out of use and is decaying because of it, as those who used it are dead.

There are many more examples of literary devices in these chapters, but hopefully these few will get you started.

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