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What are literary devices used in "Dreams" by Langston Hughes other than personification, simile, imagery, and rhyme. Dreams, by Langston Hughes Hold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.Hold fast to dreamsFor when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow.

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You have said that there is personification in this poem, which there arguably could be in the idea of dreams dying, or going, but that isn't straightforward, clear-cut personification. Lots of things other than a person could "go" or "die," such as a bird or a plant. Personification is when human attributes are applied to something non-human. The phrase "if dreams die" is more correctly a metaphor—dreams are not literally able to die, but metaphorically they certainly can.

We see other uses of metaphor in this poem. The image of life as "a broken-winged bird / That cannot fly" is a metaphor. It invites us to view life as having the attributes of the bird described: it has been damaged by something and is therefore unable to fulfill its original purpose or soar above the earth as it once had the potential to do. Likewise, there is another metaphor in the image of life as "a barren field." Both images center around the idea of potential loss. A field would once have had the potential to grow things and bear fruit, but something has happened to this field in the form of the "snow" which has covered it—something external is preventing it from fulfilling its true potential.

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Other literary devices apparent in Hughes' short poem "Dreams" relate to structure, in particular to parallelism and repetition in structure. First, structural parallelism is evident in the details of the two halves. Each has repetition that is varied by the simile used and by asymmetrical conditionals.

The conditional in the first half reads, "For if dreams die ...," while the conditional in the second reads, "For when dreams go ...." Each of these conditionals is followed by a simile. The first conditional is followed by, "Life is a broken-winged bird / That cannot fly," while the second conditional is followed by, "Life is a barren field / Frozen with snow." These similes emphasize the devastating loss expressed in the conditionals by describing how personal volition is removed with the death of a dream ("cannot fly") and how fulfillment is lost when "dreams go" ("barren field").

Repetition, by which Hughes creates a complicated stanza, follows the same pattern in both the two halves. "Hold fast to dreams / For if/when dreams die/go ..." is repeated in each with variation in the second parts. This type of repetition, which repeats the same words at the beginning and end of clauses, is called symploce, in particular, a type of symploce called coenotes. It is followed by a repetition called anaphora in which words that begin a clause ("Life is a ...") are repeated but ending words are not repeated:

Life is a broken-winged bird
That cannot fly.
Life is a barren field
Frozen with snow.

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