Literary devices that American writer Langston Hughes uses in the 86 line poem 'Let America Be America Again’ include:
1. A rhyme scheme in certain stanzas:
For example, in stanza number 1 the rhyme schemes is ABAB. Line one rhymes with line three; line two rhymes with line four. This rhyme scheme is used again in stanza number two and three.
2. Internal rhyme
Internal rhyme is rhyme within a singular line. In line two of stanza number one:
Let it be the dream it used to be.
The internal rhyme is in the words: be, dream, be.
The internal rhyme in line one of stanza number two is dream, dreamers, dreamed.
Let America be the dream the dreamers dreamed—
We can refer back to the above line (line one of stanza number two). Here the alliteration is the repeated “d’s” of dream, dreamers, dreamed.
Later on in the poem alliteration is achieved in the line phrase “Of grab the gold!” The use of “g’s”.
4. Symbolism and personification
Freedom in this poem is symbolized as steel in the line “The steel of freedom does not stain.” In addition, America is symbolized and personified as a pioneer.
5. A main theme
The thrust of this poem, in terms of theme, is of taking action and being positive, to make America dignified and magnificent. Langston Hughes does not believe, despite opinions to the contrary, that America has ever achieved the greatness within its reach. He makes a litany of what the shortcomings of America are. However, he does believe America can be great – or greater – and therefore, that is the theme of this poem.
6. Mood or atmosphere
With the harsh condemnations of aspects of American society and culture, the atmosphere or mood of this poem is somewhat sombre. Nonetheless, the underlying mood or atmosphere of this poem is optimistic. Langston Hughes is pushing individuals to take charge and do the “doing” to let America be America again.