What literary devices are used and where in chapter 3 of Lord of the Flies?

The literary devices used in chapter three of Lord of the Flies include similes, personification, foreshadowing, and alliteration. All of these can be found in the first three pages of the chapter.

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Vivid imagery, which is description using any of the five senses of sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell, is used throughout chapter three. Near the end of the chapter, the narrator describes Simon encountering and crawling into a small natural "hut" formed by the way a group of plants...

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Vivid imagery, which is description using any of the five senses of sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell, is used throughout chapter three. Near the end of the chapter, the narrator describes Simon encountering and crawling into a small natural "hut" formed by the way a group of plants grow on the island:

The whole space was walled with dark aromatic bushes, and was a bowl of heat and light. A great tree, fallen across one corner, leaned against the trees that still stood and a rapid climber flaunted red and yellow sprays right to the top.

The description is detailed and includes not only visual images, but "touch" in the form of heat and a hint of smell imagery in the "aromatic" bushes. The imagery conveys the loveliness of this natural space, which is part of the often intoxicating beauty the boys encounter on first arriving on the island.

Near the end of the chapter, Golding uses metaphor, which is comparison not using the words like or as, when he writes that Jack and Ralph, walking side by side, are:

two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate.

By comparing them to continents, Golding shows how far apart these boys are in how they understand the world. Likening them to continents also shows how powerful each of these boys is in the context of the island and foreshadows how the other boys will later have to choose which "continent" they want to live on. When Golding says the boys are unable to communicate, he is also using a figure of speech. As we have seen, the boys speak English and can understand what each other says. It is on a deeper level that they don't understand each other.

The literary device of dialogue helps the reader understand how the two boys are different. Ralph has sacrificed his own desires to spend the day building huts while Jack has focused on a task that gives him pleasure, hunting. Ralph bursts out:

“But you like it!” shouted Ralph. “You want to hunt! While I—”

Ralph is concerned with duty while Jack prefers pleasure.

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First things first: what is a literary device? In a nutshell, literary devices are tools that writers use to draw attention to larger themes and ideas. The list of literary devices is long, and includes comparisons (similes and metaphors), personification, foreshadowing, and alliteration, among many others.

The first literary device in this chapter is appears in the first few lines. Jack is attempting to hunt, and Golding describes him as being “like a sprinter.” This is an example of a simile, which is a comparison of two unlike things using the word “like” or “as.”Jack’s stance is compared to that of a sprinter waiting to hear the start gun.

On the second page of this chapter (page 67 in my edition of the book) we see an example of personification. Jack’s eyes are described as “bolting and nearly mad.” Since eyes cannot, in a literal sense, be bolting or mad, we can tell that, in order to make his point, Golding has given Jack’s eyes human-like characteristics.

Another example of a literary device is foreshadowing, which is a literary device which hints at something which is to come later in the story. Jack’s sheer determination to successfully hunt a pig in chapter three foreshadows the bloodthirsty behavior that he will demonstrate later in the story when he leads the hunt against Ralph.

Alliteration is a literary device involving the repeated use of consonant sounds in adjacent or nearby words. We can find at least two examples of this on page 67 (the second page of the chapter). Golding refers to Jack being in the midst of a “tangle of trees.” Later in the same paragraph, the “passing pallor” in Jack’s face is mentioned.

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Chapter 3 is full of a variety of literary devices including similes, a metaphor, imagery, verbal irony, foreshadowing, allusion and a foil. Golding uses several similes to describe Jack as he tries to track a wild pig. He is "like a sprinter," and he stared at the signs left by the pig "as though he would force them to speak to him." He is described at one point as "dog-like" and later as "ape-like." Imagery is used in the first part of the chapter to describe Jack's experience in the forest and at the end to describe Simon's. Sound imagery includes the following: "whine of insects," "silence shattered and echoes set ringing by a harsh cry," "hiss of indrawn breath," and "the quick, hard patter of hoofs, a castanet sound." Visual imagery is apparent when describing the pig droppings: "They were olive green, smooth, and they steamed a little." The chapter ends with visual and olfactory imagery when the moonflowers are described. 

An interesting metaphor describes how Ralph and Jack have different perspectives: "They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate." Verbal irony occurs when Ralph says, "Meetings. Don't we love meetings?" The contrasting descriptions of Simon are also ironic, coming so close together: "he helps," "Simon's always about," "he's buzzed off," and "he's queer. He's funny." 

Jack's expression of the "feeling [of] ... being hunted" foreshadows the dark times ahead for the boys and the last chapter when Jack hunts Ralph. In addition, when Ralph warns Jack, "So long as your hunters remember the fire," it foreshadows Jack's letting the fire go out in the next chapter. 

Golding is setting up Simon to be a Christ-figure, and he builds an allusion to Jesus into this chapter to help plant that idea. When Simon goes into the forest, littluns follow him, and he ends up picking fruit for them. The description of Simon passing out food to "the endless, outstretched hands" is an allusion to the miracle of feeding the five thousand.

Finally, Golding sets up Simon as a foil to Jack. Just as the beginning of the chapter is rich in description of Jack's lone activity in the forest, so the end of the chapter contains vivid imagery surrounding Simon in his "little cabin." Jack is described as frustrated and "nearly mad" in his pursuit of the pig. In contrast, Simon sees butterflies and hears peaceful bees buzzing and the sound of the ocean. Simon's serenity as he connects with his environment presents a stark contrast to Jack's adversarial relationship with nature. 

In this chapter, Golding is deepening readers' understanding of setting, character, and plot, and his use of literary devices helps him in achieving that end.

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