"My only love sprung from my only hate!" is an example of an exclamatory sentence. Shakespeare has written this sentence as an exclamatory sentence to indicate to the actor playing Juliet that her tone here should express an intense emotion—whether shock, deep frustration, or something else. In the same quotation, the repetition of the word "only" emphasizes how unfortunate Juliet thinks she is. She has "only" one love and "only" one hate, and so the fact that they are both linked seems highly unfortunate.
There is also repetition of the word "too" in the next part of the quotation. The repetition here again emphasizes Juliet's misfortune. She saw Romeo "too early," and found out about his family name "too late." There is also in this part of the quotation, and in the previous part of the quotation, syntactical parallelism. This is when the first half of a sentence mirrors the second half. For example, in the first sentence, we have "My only love" and "my only hate," and in the second sentence, we have "Too early seen," and "known too late." The syntactical parallelism here reflects how Juliet has to balance her love for Romeo against her supposed hatred of his family. One is tempered, or at least complicated, by the other.
The line, "Prodigious birth of love it is" is a metaphor. Her love for Romeo, of course, was not literally born, but this metaphor implies that her love for Romeo was natural, and also that her love for Romeo has given her a new life. The fact that the birth is described as "Prodigious," meaning unnatural or abnormal, is also an example of dramatic irony, which is when the audience knows something that one or more of the characters on stage do not.
The audience, in this instance, is already aware, from the prologue of the play, that Romeo and Juliet's love will end in death. Indeed it is described as "death-marked." Juliet is not aware of this, but her choice of language, to an audience that does know, is ironic. She speaks of a birth, which we know will end in death. The dramatic irony here also perhaps makes us, the audience, feel more sympathetic towards Juliet. She is deeply and hopelessly in love and has been given, as it were, a new life because of this love, but she is tragically unaware that this love, and this new life, will ultimately lead to her own death.