What literary device was used when Romeo states, "I fear too early for my mind misgives"?

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Benvolio and Mercutio are attempting to convince Romeo to go with them to the Capulets' party. Romeo resists them because he is feeling really sad about Rosaline and the unrequited love he feels for her. After all this talking, Benvolio is afraid that they will arrive at the party too...

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Benvolio and Mercutio are attempting to convince Romeo to go with them to the Capulets' party. Romeo resists them because he is feeling really sad about Rosaline and the unrequited love he feels for her. After all this talking, Benvolio is afraid that they will arrive at the party too late to enjoy it. However, Romeo responds:

I fear too early, for my mind misgives
Some consequence yet hanging in the stars
Shall bitterly begin his fearful date
With this night's revels, and expire the term
Of a despised life closed in my breast
By some vile forfeit of untimely death.
But he that hath the steerage of my course
Direct my sail. (1.4.113-120)

Romeo says that he fears that something fated will be set in motion by his appearance at the party, and that this will end with his death. However, he still feels compelled to go.

The phrase "consequence yet hanging in the stars" is not literally possible, and so it makes meaning figuratively. Stars were believed to be connected to fate—as though one might read one's fate in the stars (e.g., Romeo and Juliet are described as "star-cross'd" in the Prologue)—and so the phrase "hanging in the stars" stands in for "awaiting me as part of my fate." This substitution of something associated with fate (the stars) for fate itself is called metonymy.

There is also alliteration in the phrase "the mind misgives" as well as slant rhyme with the repetition of the "s" sound in "misgives," "some," "consequence," and "stars." Alliteration is the repetition of the initial consonant sound in consecutive and near-consecutive words. Slant rhyme refers to any kind of sound similarity (it isn't dependent on where the sounds occurs in the word, unlike alliteration).

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Let's look at the full quote that you are referring to first, which occurs in Act One, Scene Four of Romeo and Juliet:

I fear too early, for my mind misgives

Some consequence yet hanging in the stars

Shall bitterly begin his fearful date

With this night’s revels, and expire the term

Of a despisèd life closed in my breast

By some vile forfeit of untimely death.

But he that hath the steerage of my course,

Direct my sail. On, lusty gentlemen.

First, this passage is an example of foreshadowing. Romeo is telling Benvolio that he fears that something bad will happen at the ball later that night which may eventually result in his death. This premonition is absolutely true: Romeo will meet his future wife, Juliet, the woman from the rivaling Capulet family who will later commit suicide with Romeo in the crypt.

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The literary device that is used in Romeo's quote, "I fear, too early; for my mind misgives/ Some consequence yet hanging in the stars," (Act I, scene v, l. 106-107) is two fold.

"My mind misgives" is personification because it is giving the mind capability to perform a human action. It is also foreshadowing, because Romeo is hinting at a future occurrence that has yet to be discovered in the "some consequence yet hanging in the starts" portion of the line.

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