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What is the limiting reactant in this chemical equation? In the neutralization of 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) -> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) And why is it that 1.1 M of HCl is used instead of 1.0 after calculating the limiting reactant?

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I think you must be missing some information here.  You cannot calculate the limiting reagent until you know exactly how much of each reagent that you have.  You have listed 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH which does not tell us about the exact amounts of either reagent.  However, we know that 1 mole of HCl reacts with 1 mole of NaOH and we also know that the concentrations of both acid and base are the same (1.0 M).  So if you are adding the same volume of both solutions together, you will get the same number of moles of each in the reaction and they will both fully react with each other and there will be no limiting reagent for the reaction.  I cannot figure out where you are getting the 1.1 M HCl from with the information you have provided.  Unless we have the specific volumes for each reagent we cannot tell for certain about the limiting reagent.

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