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A lexical relationship between languages is independent from syntax (word order); as an example, German and English have a strong syntactical relationship (one reason German is easy to learn by a native English speaker). English and French, however, have a strong lexical relationship (largely due to the Norman invasion.) Thus, many French words are recognizable to an English speaker, while the syntax is not. Example, “vin rose” – here the words vin and rose are familiar as vine or wine and rose, but the phrase puts the adjective before the noun, the opposite of common English syntax (rose wine vs. wine rose) – of course, here “rose” refers to the color. Other examples come from food words: beef (French: boeuf means the animal, cow), pork (French: porque, means the animal, pig), mutton (French: mouton means the animal, sheep), etc. Thus, lexical relationships show a relation between dictionary (lexicons) meanings among languages. The so-called Romance languages bear such relationships, while the Germanic languages bear syntactic relationships. Of course, there are borrowings in English from many languages (such as kindergarten, which is German for child’s garden).
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