In this book, Jared Diamond is arguing that the societies that got agriculture first became the “haves” of the world. The others typically became the “have-nots.” In Chapter 5, he is talking about which areas of the world became “haves” and about the order in which this happened. To see the basic story of Chapter 5, look at Table 5.1.
In Table 5.1, we see that two areas were able to independently domesticate plants and animals by 7500 BC. A further three places were able to domesticate things, but only after getting “founder crops” from other places. They did so by 6000 BC. These areas became “haves” relatively early.
But there are also three other places that are listed as having clearly developed agriculture on their own. These three places all got domesticated plants and animals between 3500 and 2500 BC. This means that they got agriculture much later than the other locations. Therefore, these three location (Mesoamerica, the Andes and Amazonia, and the Eastern United States) are the “later haves” in this chapter.