I would argue that the Progressive Era set us on the road (for good or for ill) to the society in which we now live. This is a society in which the government tries to regulate our economic actions to a large extent and in which it tries to improve people (for lact of a better word). This all comes from the Progressive Era.
The Progressive Era was the start of the government's intervention in the economy. It was then that trustbusting started as did things like clean food and drug laws. These have multiplied in the time since and we now have all sorts of regulations to protect us from what businesses might do to us.
The Progressive Era was a time of government intervention in people's personal lives. The major example of this is Prohibition. Now, we have all sorts of laws to improve us, whether we want to be improved or not. We have laws telling us to wear our seatbelts. We have laws banning (in only a few places) transfats. We have the government spending lots of money to try to stop us from smoking.
All of these types of government intervention come to us from the Progressive Era.