There are two major types of early modern globalization that can be seen today.
First, there is the impact on the populations of areas to which the slaves came. Slavery has changed the demographic face of these areas. Some countries, like Haiti and Jamaica, have populations mostly descended from Africans. Others, like Brazil and the US, have populations with large minorities of people of African descent.
Second, there is the resultant impact on the societies of these countries. Countries like the US and Brazil have to deal with the impact of slavery on the descendants of those who were enslaved. They have to figure out how to overcome the legacy of slavery and of racism to bring their African American populations to a position where they are equal to other portions of the population both legally and in terms of opportunity. This is very difficult to do and has caused major problems for societies like these.
We should note that there have surely been impacts on the areas from which the slaves were taken. But these impacts are harder to identify specifically because these same areas have been impacted by things like colonialism and imperialism. This means that it is hard to know how many of their problems come from the slave trade and how many come from the time when they were colonized by Europeans.