The physical environment includes environmental features (such as temperature, moisture, climate and soil properties), built environment (infrastructural features) and socio-economic and cultural features. For establishment and development of a society, certain key requirements must be met, including availability of a food and water source, protection from the natural elements and other species, resources for development of society, etc. The foremost criteria is availability of food and water, which means the society has to be located near a source of running water and fertile soil. Since protection is also a key to survival and propagation, the location should be safe from predators and should provide enough means to society to defend itself. For example, survival from cold weather will require animal skins to cover the human body, warm places to live, etc. Ideally, the climate must be moderate, with fertile soil and provision of irrigation nearby. For example, large tracts of land in the Pacific Northwest are therefore a good location.
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