The original question had to be pared down as eNotes educators are only permitted to answer one question per posting. I think that reasking it in separate questions would be illuminating. I tend to think that the primary basis of Javert's value system is one in which there is an absolute adherence to the law. For Javert, the law and justice are one and the same. They are synonymous with one another. Such a connection makes consciousness rather simplistic. Javert's value system is not complicated. There is the law. Those who violate it must be punished to its fullest extent. For Javert, faith in this system is what makes his own consciousness and duty evident. He does not see the intrinsic injustice of a flawed system. His value system is convergent with the procedural execution of the legal configuration. Violators of this system are to be punished to the fullest extent possible. It is for this reason that he cannot comprehend how to process Valjean's saving him from the revolutionaries. Javert's simplistic value system is thrown into chaos with the collision of both how the legal system might be wrong in its assessment of Valjean. It is for this reason that Javert takes his own life, in recognition of a faulty foundation of his own value system.