Japan's islands stretch a long way from north to south. There are also mountains down the middle of each of the main islands. This means that different places in Japan are hugely different in terms of "land, climate and weather."
The main fact about Japan's geography is that it is made up of islands that are quite mountainous. This means that there is relatively little room for the people in the plains between the mountains and the ocean. Only about 27% of Japan's land is not in the mountains.
In terms of climate, Japan is not at all homogeneous. It has areas that are very hot and humid like the area around Tokyo. It also has areas that get a lot of snow, like in the Japanese Alps.
Overall, it is very difficult to characterize the physical geography of Japan in a very short space because there are so many differences from place to place.