THE CUNNINGHAMS. "An enormous and confusing tribe domiciled in the northern part of the county," the Cunninghams (and their relatives, the Coninghams) lived in an area known as Old Sarum. Mostly honest but hard-luck farmers, the "eccentricities of Old Sarum's inhabitants" included drinking stumphole whiskey and hanging out at "the county's riverside gambling hell, the Dew-Drop Inn & Fishing Camp." They were considered outsiders in Maycomb, and they were one of Jem's four distinct social classes (the others being "regular folks," the Ewells, and Negroes), but when it came time to select a jury, there was at least one Cunningham sitting on it.
DOLPHUS RAYMOND. Dolphus is the ultimate outsider in Maycomb, due to his preference of associating with Negroes--and creating "mixed" children with his black mistress. He comes from an old family and is one of the wealthiest men in the town, yet he "Lives by himself way down near the county line" and owns land along the river. Scout considers him an "evil" and
... sinful man... but he was fascinating. I had never encountered a being who deliberately perpetrated fraud against himself.
NEGROES & THE QUARTERS. In Maycomb's (and the Deep South's) segregationist society, the town's Negroes live in the Quarters, "outside the southern town limits." The town's Negroes live by a separate set of standards imposed by the white population: In addition to many of the Jim Crow laws in effect, the town's black citizens are restricted to the balcony section in the courtroom, apart from the whites who sit below.
BOO RADLEY. Boo is isolated within his home, first confined there by his father after a run-in with the law. Boo only comes out at night, such as on the night of Miss Maudie's house fire and on fateful night of the Halloween pageant.
FINCH'S LANDING. Atticus's family homestead is situated 20 miles west of Maycomb, and it was once a "self-sufficient" cotton plantation complete with slave workers. Atticus was the first of the Finches to leave this home and make a new one in Maycomb after graduating from college. The inside of the house even has its own sense of isolation: The original owner, Simon Finch, had built the upstairs bedrooms for his four daughters with a single staircase that led directly into their parents' master bedroom so Simon could keep a sharp eye on their comings and goings.
MAYCOMB. The town itself is isolated from most other areas, "awkwardly inland for such an old town." The founder of the town, one Sinkfield,
... placed the young town too far away from the only kind of public transportation in those days--riverboat--and it took a man from the north end of the county two days to travel to Maycomb for store-bought goods. As a result, the town remained the same size for a hundred years, an island in a patchwork sea of conttonfields and timberland.